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TERM OR WORD
DEFINITION OR EXPLANATION
ACE
Acronym for Audio, Control and Erase. The ACE assembly contains two (or more) coils (electromagnets) in precise locations that are used to record the audio and control signals onto the video tape, they are also used to pick up the recorded signals during playback. In most cases the assembly will include another coil that is used to erase the tape area just ahead of the audio coil. The audio track is located at the top of the assembly and records on the top edge of the video tape. The control track signal is recorded along the bottom. During playback the control signal is used to start each new video frame or scan. The area between the two tracks is where the video signal is recorded (or scanned).
AFM
Acronym for Audio Frequency Modulation. A system utilized by Beta Hi-Fi VCRs where the sound is recorded by inserting four (two pairs) FM signals within the video information. Since the audio is recorded at the high speed of the spinning video heads a very high quality sound can be realized. Also see BetaHi-Fi.
AFV
Acronym for Audio Follow Video. A control mode in a routing switcher (switching array) in which the audio inputs associated with a video input are automatically selected when the video source is selected. That is, audio and video are always switched together. Audio may be either single channel or multichannel (stereo). Also see: Breakaway.
Analog video
A method of video recording where the signal is placed onto the media (video tape) using frequency and amplitude modulation, rather than coding it into binary pulses, as in digital recording. Beta and VHS recordings have an analog track.
Aspect ratio
Refers to the ratio of width to height of a television set. Traditional television sets have a 4:3 aspect ratio. Wide screen television sets have a 16:9 aspect ratio. Traditional television sets are almost square in appearance; wide screen displays are more rectangular.
Assemble edit
Used to copy an entire video, or pieces of a video, onto a new master video tape (one which does not already have a recorded signal or control track (black). This process records the video and audio together as one signal (which cannot be divided) and combines them on to another tape. This is often used to make complete copies of programs.
Audio mixing box
The audio mixing box is used to bring two or more different sources of audio together and send them out as a single source to your computer. In the CECSEP video conferencing system the audio mixing box receives audio from your microphone on your camera and audio from your VCR. Using the volume knobs on the audio mixing box the user can adjust the volume level of either the microphone or VCR audio that is sent to the computer.
Auto speed adjustment
When you're taping a 2 hour and 10 minute movie in the Beta II mode on a L-500 cassette, something's gotta give! So you don't miss the end of the show, you change speed midway through the tape to Beta III. During playback the automatic tape speed adjustment senses that change and automatically slows down the tape to the slower speed. There will be a small distortion at the point of change, but you did get all the show.
Auto-clock set
Finds the time signal from your local PBS station and automatically sets the VCR clock.
Auto-gain control
The auto-gain control allows the software to automatically make minor adjustments to the audio for better audio quality.
Aux
Short for auxillary. Used to describe circuitry that can perform a special or unique function.
Awesome
Explicative used by Beta supportors to describe their format.
Balanced input
A differential input circuit pair with equal impedance to ground on each side. (See differential Input.) The advantages as opposed to single-ended transmission are noise rejection over long distances of cabling.
Balanced Output
A differential output circuit pair with equal source impedance on each side. (See differential Output.)
Battery Back-Up
Uses a battery or special slow discharge capacitor to store all your programming instructions during a power outage so that you never miss a show or have to reprogram. Some back-up systems only last for a few minutes for brief power outages, others last for up to 24 hours.
Beta, Betacam, BetacamSP,
Beta is the format of choice of the discriminating prosumer. The BetaCam (and BetacamSP) format has been the video recording standard in the broadcast industry for over twenty years, producing a high quality video for broadcast and professional use. Digital Beta is the newest advance in the lineup of top Beta performers and uses linear digital recording, preferred by moviemakers.
Betahi-fi
High quality stereo performance achieved by inserting the audio recording into the video signal. For more information click on the "Beta Technical Info" button in the navigator bar on the right.
Betahi-fi stereo
Introduced early in the life of Beta this audio system used the spinning video heads to record the sound. Because of the speed at which the video heads rotate incredible frequency response was achieved. The process inserts two pairs of audio signals within the converted video signal at the time of recording and retreives them when played back. Because of the resulting high writing speed distortion factors such as wow and flutter are virtually eliminated. The two pairs are seperate from each other and can be used for dual channel or stereo recording and playback. (see "Beta Technical Info" section)
Betaphile
Term adopted by persons that revel in the performance and beauty of the Beta format.
BetaScan
Name Sony gave to the accelerated viewing of the video picture executed from the forward and the play mode.
BetaSkipScan
Name Sony gave to the accelerated viewing of the video picture in forward and reverse executed from the fast forward and rewind modes.
BI, BII, BIII
The three speeds of Beta recording. BI was the original tape speed used for the first Betas. Traveling at about 4.0 cm/sec. (1.6 ips.) it had the advantage of a producing a video guard band to reduce picture noise and decent audio because of the faster tape speed. BII was half the speed of BI (2.0 cm/sec. or 0.8 ips.) and BIII was slower still at 1.33 cm/sec. (0.5 ips.). All three speeds were faster than their VHS counterparts.
Binder
An adhesive material that holds the magnetic particles together and also binds it to the plastic film of video (recording) tape.
Bit rate
The speed at which audio and video contents is streamed on a network. Bit rate is usually measure in kilobytes per second (Kbps), for example 28.8 Kbps.
Blank raster
Black signal, picture that is broadcast, recorder or played back to be totally black.
Blanking / blanking interval
The period of time when a television monitor is "blanked" while the electron beam retraces from right to left or bottom to top. In a baseband video signal, the intervals between active video lines and between the last active line in a field and the first active line in the next. Ideally, a video switcher would sense when a blanking period occurs and would switch the video signal during this time. This prevents any visually unpleasant video effects on a monitor. This requires the video switcher to actively monitor each of the user's video sources.
BNC
Acronym for Bayonet Neill Concelman, used with RG-58 A/V cable. A barrel-type connector used mostly in professional recording. A rotating ring outside the tube locks the cable to any female connector. Found on much of Sony's professional equipment.
BNR
Acronym for Beta Noise Reduction. A type of tape noise reduction technology employed by Sony. Similar to Dolby® or DBX® noise reduction systems.
Bookmark
A way in which to mark notable internet sites for later viewing. It is comparable to using multiple scraps of paper to mark your favorite parts of a book or pictures you would like to look at later. Bookmarks can be made and accessed under the "bookmark" (Netscape) or "favorite" (Explorer) options on the internet menu toolbar. A great example would be "bookmarking the MisterBetamax Website."
Boost or gain (back light
This increases light sensitivity for recording in dim conditions. Often results in "grainy" video.
Breakaway
An edit where the audio and video do not automatically switch together, but one comes before or after the other. Often audio will come in before the corresponding scene starts.
Broadband
This refers to your Internet connection speed. Broadband denotes a high speed connection to the Internet. In most cases it is either through DSL, Cable, or a line from school known as a T1 or ISDN line. A slow Internet connection that is typical in most homes today is known as a dial up connection.
Broadcast quality
An ambiguous term used to compare picture quality. If you've watched shows on TV where viewers send in video clips, you know that nearly anything can be broadcast, and most video equipment manufacturers have a professional broadcast division that is separate from their Consumer division. Note: Broadcast equipment is generally superior to consumer-level gear.
BSL motor
Acronym that stands for Brushless, Slotless motors. These are motors commonly manufactured in the shape of a flat disk. The stator is a radial set of north and south magnetic poles and the coils are wound flat and lay next to the stator. Movement is accomplised by pulsing the coils and pulling at the poles in the stator. Commonly found in the capstan and reel assemblys.
Buffer
An area for temporary storage of data, often used to free resources or to compensate for a difference in transmission speeds between devices.
Buttons
Buttons on the computer and the internet are just the same as regular buttons on a microwave, VCR or anything. Push them and they do something. A few examples of buttons on computers and VCRs are "play," "home," "cancel" and "OK."
Cable-ready
Indicates that the tuner is capable of bringing in the channels used for some cable systems.
Camcorder
The video camera that you use to record your family so you can share with your friends or save for posterity. (See BetaMovie)
Capstan
Rotating shaft that, in conjunction with a pinch roller pressed against it, pulls the video tape through the Beta VCR.
Cassette
A encasement, usually of plastic, that contains the recording media (tape), spools, retaining devices and other parts necessary to present the media to device for playback or recording.
CCD
Acronym for Charged Coupling Device. The image-sensing devices in today's camcorders are known as CCD's or chips. Camcorders generally have one, two or three chips, and they can be 1/4" through 1/2" in size. Professional level camcorders generally have 3 chips. The chips take the primary colors of video, red, green, and blue, and transform them into electronic signals that the camcorders put to tape. With a 3-chip camcorder, each color has its own path, while a single chip camera puts all three colors on the same path. By keeping the colors separate, 3-chip cameras tend to have an advantage in clarity over 1-chip cameras. The larger 3-chips produce better quality than the smaller 3-chips.
CD
Acronym for Compact Disk. You can record either audio or video onto a CD. The video footage on a CD can be jumpy because there is less compression (than a DVD, for example). Photos from childhood, the wedding or honeymoon can also be put on a CD. An audio CD has better quality sound than an audio cassette.
Changer
A mechanism made by Sony that when attached to the appropriate Beta VCR allowed several cassettes to be placed in a hopper for automatic insertion and removal, thus extending the overall recording time.
Channel crosstalk
Coupling of a signal from one channel to another or any other output by conduction or radiation. Crosstalk is expressed in decibels (dB) at a specified load impedance and over a specific frequency range or ranges.
Chat session
A system by which two or more computer users can "talk" with each other in real time by typing. What you write the other person sees almost instantaneously and vice versa. It is different from e-mail, which is more like writing a letter. Chatting is more like a verbal conversation.
Clear picture pause
Using electronics or video scanning replication to produce a clean picture during pause mode.
Click
Selecting an item, word, or image on the computer screen by pushing the button on your mouse.
Close up shot
This shot shows an even smaller part of the subject or scene. Great for showing detail, like a person's emotional face or individual leaves on a tree. If you were interviewing someone, this shot would show the person from the top of the chest or shoulders up. An Extreme Close Up Shot is even closer than a Close Up. For example, it is just of the person's eyes, or of a bug gnawing on a leaf.
Coaxial cable
A cable that has one conductor (shield) completely surrounding the other (center conductor), the two being coaxial and separated by an insulator. Standard industry types have a braided shield, or a semi-rigid copper or stainless steel shield material. Braided shield coaxial cable offers more physical flexibility but less shielding.
Coaxial or coaxe cable
Coaxial cable has a wire conductor in the center, an outer conductor or shield and an insulating medium, called the dielectric, separating these two conductors. The outer conductor is usually sheathed in a protective outer jacket of plastic.
Command prompt
The command prompt is a small window that allows you to type commands to your computer. You can find the command prompt on any window machine by clicking Start > Run.
Component video
A three-channel video signal wherein the luminance, hue and color saturation information are carried as R, G and B (Red, Green and Blue) signals or as one of several variations of color difference signals.
Composite video
A single video signal carrying combined luminance, chrominance and raster synchronizing information.
Control track (or "black"
An area on a video tape where magnetic impulses have been recorded. The magnetic impulses act like glue, holding down the new video you record there. This is necessary for insert editing, however may not be for assemble editing.
Control-L
A special cable or connector that allows communication between the Beta VCR and another device, such as an external editor or infrared receiver.
Control-Lf
A special cable or connector that allows communication between the GCS-50 Beta VCR and another device, such as an external editor or infrared receiver. Different from the control-L connector because it's power circuit delivers 9 volts rather than 6.5 volts.
Control-S
A special mini-plug connector that allows communication between Beta VCRs so that one can control another, as for editing. Also allows one central IR receiver (in a VCR, TV, etc.) to control more than one compatible piece of equipment.
Control-T
A special mini-plug cable or connector that allows communication between the two Beta VCRs so that one can control the other for pre-roll and assemble editing. The cable is unique because the leads within the sheilded cable are crossed.
Crosspoint switch
A switch which, when closed, connects the signal on an input bus to one or more output buses. Also referred to as a matrix switch or switching array.
Crosstalk
Unwanted interference in an output resulting from other input and output signals, measured in dB below the nominal signal level, and is expressed in decibels (dB) at a specified load impedance and over a specific frequency range or ranges. Also referred to as All Hostile or Hostile Crosstalk. See Channel Isolation.
CRT
Acronym for Cathode Ray Tube. The phosphor coated imaging tube that produces a picture by lighting up certain areas when they are struck by an electronic beam.
Cut
The instantaneous, direct switch from one picture to another.
DA heads
Or DA4 pro heads. Acronym for Dual-Azimuth (heads). Compound video heads that are made with two sized (or azimuth) recording areas (with seperate windings or coils) on the head mounting. Their close spacing allows for more accurate tracing of the video paths for the various speeds. Called DA4 because there are two opposing compound heads per video disk assembly, which adds up to four total.
Daisy chaining
The serial control connection of two or more mainframes (master/slave(s) configuration). Also, some switching modules or cards can be daisy-chained to yield more inputs. This term is also used in reference to control panels daisy chaining (looping) from control panel to control panel and then to the final destination, the switching system.
Decibels (dB)
The logarithmic ratio between two signal levels. In video and audio, it is normally defined as: dB=20 log10(V2/V1).
Desktop
The screen which shows on your computer when you first turn it on. The desktop allows you to get to all your programs and folders through menus and icons and is where you will always return when you close those programs or folders. It is just like your desktop at work or home where you have stacks of papers and folders, office supplies, a phone, etc. You can shuffle through, set things aside, throw things away, put them away, or pull them back out again to work on them. The desktop is your station from where you perform all other tasks and projects.
Destination
The equipment connected to the output of a routing switcher, crosspoint switch or switching array. Used when defining the size of a switching array, the user must specify how many sources and destination there are in the system. See Source.
Differential gain
Unwanted variations in a video signal's chrominance subcarrier's amplitude that result from changes in the signal's DC level, usually specified between 10% and 90% of full scale. Expressed in a percentage, or a fraction of a percentage.
Differential input
An input circuit that actively responds to the difference between two terminals rather than the difference between one terminal and ground. Often associated with balanced input circuitry, but also may be used with an unbalanced source. The opposite is the single-ended or unbalanced input.
Differential output
An output circuit where the output voltage appears between two active output terminals rather than between one terminal and ground. Normally associated with balanced circuitry. See Differential Input.
Differential phase
Unwanted variations in a subcarrier's phase as a result of changes in the chrominance signal's DC level, usually specified between 10% and 90% of full scale. Expressed in degrees, or fractions or a degree.
Digital
A generalized term that indicates the method used is in a binary format, or to say it another way, constructed with a ones and zeros (on and off). As it relates to audio / video recording the desired information is converted to of on or off magnetic pulses that, when played back, can be reconstructed to duplicate the original recording.
Display
An item created to represent or show how a particular part,device or scene would look when viewed actual size or in real time. Displays are generally larger than the original item represented and are sometimes prototypes.
Divine
Explicative used by Beta supportors to describe the feeling they get when using their format.
DOC (circuit)
DOC is an acronym Drop Out Compensation circuit. Every Beta has an electronic circuit devoted to removing, or at least reducing, the number of specks (called drop outs or noise) during playback that can occur due to the imperfections found in all video tapes. On the oxide surface of video tapes there can be tiny flaws (lumps of oxide, gaps or dead spots) that can come between the scanning video heads and the recorded signal. During the playback process when these imperfections are encountered they can cause white bursts, specks, black lines or white streaks in the picture. The DOC circuit sees these before you do and is able to insert the previous line of picture information into the defective scan. It happens almost instantly and is so good that you almost never see it in action. Every playback picture is slightly delayed before it is sent out just so these previous lines can be inserted. Sony Beta VCRs with a PCM switch will allow you to turn off this DOC circuit. Turning on the PCM switch is actually turning off the DOC circuit. Doing this lets you see these tiny imperfections and allows you to evaluate just how well a particular brand or type of tape performs in the raw. But it also can cause concerns if you inadventently turn on the PCM and start seeing lots of specks in your playback picture. It will look like a machine malfunction when actually just turning it off will make the picture clear up again. Why PCM? Sony developed Pulse Code Modulation, which is a type of digital audio recording, to be used with their Beta format VCRs. When it comes to digital recording you don’t want a circuit inserting previous lines of audio into your playback, so this is why it can be turned off. See: drop out, PCM and digital for more infomation.
Dolby®
A type of noise reduction system that removes hiss from audio recordings.
Drop out
Video tape images and sound are recorded on magnetic oxide on the tape. A drop out is a place in the tape where the oxide is gone, so instead of video there will be a disturbance on the tape. Drop outs occur over time and their chances increase with the number of times the tape is used. That's why it's always a good idea to use good quality new tapes to record something important, and to only reuse a tape 2 or 3 times.
DSL
Acronym fo Dedicated Service Line. A system where a computor is connected to the internet (or an intranet) over a wire or cable. Service is constant as opposed to the call-up or dial-up service connection, which is only used when requested.
DTS
Acronym for Digital Theater Sound. An audio encoding format similar to Dolby Digital. DTS offers theater system sound with at least six discrete audio channels but is compressed at a lower rate than Dolby Digital.
Dub
To copy. You can "dub" or "double" a tape. If you copy or "dub" Tape B from Tape A, you have gone a "generation" of tape. That is to say, Tape B is not the original. If you copy Tape C from Tape B, you have gone down two generations in quality - it is a copy of a copy. In general, to get the highest quality copies, try to make all of your copies from Tape A, the master.
DV
Acronym for Digital Video. Refers to the capturing, manipulation and storage of video in digital format. The DV format is an international standard for consumer use created in 1995 by a consortium of companies. Most digital camcorders record in DV format.
DVD
Acronym for Digital Versatile Disc. It is a high capacity (4.7GB) CD-size disc for video, multimedia, games and audio applications. It holds about 7 times more information than a regular CD (650MB).
DVD+R (also see DVD-R)
A read only DVD format commonly used for distribution of movies (which are more specifically referred to as DVD-Video) and computer games
DVD-R
A DVD format that allows you to write once. It is a competitor of DVD+R, and is therefore not compatible with that format. Some new DVD writers can write in both DVD-R and DVD+R, and most DVD player can read both.
E-mail (Electronic Mail)
Short for electronic mail, a system that allows people to send and receive messages through the computer. The system is the same as sending mail through the regular postal system, only this mail is conducted completely electronically.
ED Beta
Extended Definition Beta. High picture quality recording produced by extending the luminance signal up to 9.3 Mhz. Requires special metal formulated tape and renders over 500 lines of resolution.
Edit master
Also called the Master Tape. After the wedding has been edited, the footage is captured on a Master Tape, and then duplicated to VHS or DVD. In non-linear systems the computer hard drive serves as the source for duplications.
Editor
A specialized electronic device with the capability to a control a player and a recorder so that various scenes or segments from a prerecorded video tape can be indexed,selected or assembled for dubbing in a predetermined order. The resulting tape contains only the desired segments in the order dictated by the device.
Eject
Mechanical operation that allows removal of the cassette from a Beta.
Eject button
A button, when pressed, causes the Beta to unload a cassette and places it into a position so it can be removed.
EMI
Acronym for Electromagnetic Interference. A term that defines unwanted electromagnetic radiation from a device which could interfere with desired signals in test or communication equipment. RFI (Radio Frequency Interference) and EMI are often used interchangeably.
Encoding
To change or translate into code. For software, encoding is used for video and audio references like encoding analogue format into digital or raw digital data into compressed format.
Equalization
Selective amplification (signal restoration) applied to a signal in order to compensate for high frequency attenuation and other distortions encountered in long lengths of cable.
Excellence
Explicative used by Beta supportors to describe their format.
Express tuning
Term indicating that the tuner can access stations in any order by the touch of the appropriate button.
Exquisite
Explicative used by Beta supportors to describe their format.
Extended programming
If you like to plan ahead, there were Betas that let you tape up to 8 different events occurring up to one year from now.
Eye-level angle
One of the most commonly used shots is the eye-level shot. Why? Because it's the perspective most familiar to us - we usually see things from our own eye-level. This angle also causes the least discomfort because we're used to it. If you're shooting a person, make sure you shoot at their eye-level, not yours.
F-Type connector
A threaded medium performance coaxial signal connector typically used in consumer applications (TV's and VCR's). This connector is typically usable as high as 1GHz. It is inexpensive since the pin of the connector is actually the center conductor of the coaxial cable.
Face Plate
The front panel of a device. It usually comprises the display, function buttons and switches for the device.
Fade
A gradual increase or decrease of the image and sound. You can fade an image to black, or do the reverse.
Faroudja
A technology used in a number of Sony products. Specific to the Beta format it was credited on the SL-HF870D and the Extended Definition Beta units. It employs special filtering techniques for the minimization of NTSC artifacts (noise). Faroudja Inc., was founded in 1971, has been instrumental in improving video enhancement, noise reduction and NTSC encoding and decoding techniques, as well as pioneering line-multiplying technology. Today Faroudja continues to develop leading video processing technology and solutions that produce HDTV-quality images to the digital broadcast, display, PC/TV convergence, and home theater markets.
FE
Acronym for Flying Erase or full erase. Flying erase refers to a special erase head or heads the are mounted on the video disk that can clear an individual scan or trace prior to recording. The advanatages of fying erase heads is that they reduce moiré (color noise) from incomplete erasure and help produce clean edits. The full erase head removes the material previously recorded on the tape prior to it's entrance to the video drum. As it's name implies to spans the entire width of the tape and removes the complete signal.
Flutter and wow (audio)
Variations in the speed of playback of a recorded audio signal that produce pitch changes and sound distortion. Flutter deals primarily with rapid speed fluctuations. Wow is a slower form of flutter. Wow has to do with small speed variations resulting in a wobbling sound. The two together cause noticeable audible errors in the reproduced signal.
Flutter and wow (video)
Distortion in the video caused by a slowing down and speeding up of the video tape as it passes by the video drum. Flutter will cause it to roll (flip up or down) and wow will cause a slow tearing (separation) of the picture.
Flying erase heads (FE)
Term used to describe a special set of magnetic heads mounted on the video disk that clears (erases) the scanning path prior to video recording. They differ from the full erase head because they allow for recorded material to be inserted into a previous recording without disturbing the information before and after the insertion. During video insertion the full erase head is turned off. (See full erase head.)
Focus
There are two ways to focus - auto and manual. When you focus in "manual", you control the focus. To make sure your shots are in focus, zoom in and focus up close first, then zoom back. This insures that what you are shooting is focused to the greatest extent possible. Manual focus is good to use when there is a lot of movement of dominant figures. When the camera is in "auto focus" it will automatically focus on the dominant figure in the center of the view finder. Because it focuses automatically on the dominant figure, it will adjust to whatever becomes dominant. For example, if you are focused on a person several feet away, and someone walks in between the camera and the other person, the camera will adjust to focus on the new dominant figure - the person who walked in front of the camera.
Four head design
Every VCR needs at least two video heads† to record a picture. By going to four heads, the manufacturer is able to design recording and playback quality that is best for various play modes. Four heads also allows the delivery of jitter and noise free special effects like slow motion and freeze frame. If you do your own recording, you will get the best results using a 4 head VCR in the Beta II mode, and obviously, the same applies to dubs from your camcorder (see three head design and DA4 heads). †Technically a VCR can record a picture with only one video head but the results are inferior to a two head design. BetaMovies used a single compound dual azimuth head that resulted in two seperate scans.
Frame
A single, complete video image that lasts 1/30th of a second. There are 30 frames in a second. If your camera or editing system can measure frames, you can use this as a counter to log your video tape.
Frame count
Visual notaion of each frame as it is displayed on a monitor, etc.
Frame rate
Number of frames being displayed during a preset time interval.
Frames per second
For video content, the frame rate measures how many still frames per second with the average being 20-30. The higher the better when capturing video content with motion.
Frequency range
The measure of a circuit's ability to pass a full amplitude signal over a range of signal frequencies. Normally measured between the point or points where the signal amplitude falls to -3dB below the passband frequency. Normally defines the "bandwidth" of a device or system.
Front input jacks
Allow easy hookup of other video components. This prevents you from having to re-wire or pull your components out of a cabinet every time you want to hook up another VCR, Camcorder or TV game.
Full erase head
The full erase head is used to remove any previously recorded material on the video tape prior to recording. It is mounted stationary before the video drum and is activated when a recording is made. A bias signal is sent to the head to scatter the magnetic particles on the video tape in a random pattern. This clears the way for the video and audio heads to record a new signal on a freshly cleared area. Without erasure prior to recording the previous information would bleed through and cause noise in the picture. The full erase head is turned off during play back and insertion recording. (See flying erase heads.)
Hi-Fi
Stands for High Fidelity. Recording method that captures a faithful range of the audio spectrum, usually a frequency range of 30 to 30,000 cycles per second.
Hi-Fi adapter
A special electronic device capable of converting a BetaHiFi ready recorder into a stereo unit. Several models also received stereo broadcasts.
High angle
In this shot the camera looks down on the subject, decreasing its importance. The subject looks smaller. It often gives the audience a sense of power, or the subject a sense of helplessness. In this case, you'd be higher than the other person (maybe they're sitting, or maybe you're standing on a desk) looking down on that person.
High band
Improved picture clarity over regular Beta by boosting the luminance or picture information to approx. 5.6 Mhz.
High shutter speed
This feature, usually a button on your camera, allows you to capture objects that are moving at a high speed when you use this feature.
Homepage
There are two meanings for homepage. The first is the web page that your browser is set to use when it starts up. The more common meaning refers to the main web page for a business, organization, person or simply the main page out of a collection of web pages.
Icon
Icons are pictures used to symbolize something. They often act the same as a button and are usually found on the desktop or in folders. They may also be within internet sites. They are the symbols that signify gateways and jumping off points to other programs, pages, or papers. They are not unlike the old-fashioned signs hanging in front of stores the symbolized the service you received inside. For example, the cobbler had a giant shoe hanging outside and the bookstore would have a book. The little pictures on your desktop representing the Recycle Bin, My Documents and the Internet, are all examples of icons.
IEEE1394
The fastest transference device, also known as Sony iLink or FireWire. It is increasing in popularity because of its superior quality. The adapter card comes with 4 or 6 pins slots. Transmission rates can go up to 400MB and be adopted up to 63 devices.
Impedance
The electrical characteristic of a transmission circuit expressed in ohms. The transmission circuit (line) is usually terminated in a resistance such as 50 or 75 ohms (most popular).
Impedance roller
A weighted roller used to impart a slight drag upon the tape thus causing it to be less susceptible to becoming slack.
In point (inset point)
The place on the tape where you want to start your edit.
Index Search
If you put several movies on one tape or just want to navigate quickly to a certain point on a tape, Index Search is what you need. This feature lets you electronically mark the beginning of a show or any other point on your tape. Pressing the index search button sends you fast forwarding to your first event, pressing twice sends you to the second and so on. No more searching for the beginning of your shows! (Works in rewind mode too.)
Indicator
A component designed to display which functions are in operation. Example: A light emitting diode that illuminates to show that a Beta has been turned on.
Input
Indicates that an ingoing signal is to be made available at this circuit connector.
Insert Edit
This process allows you to edit audio and video, separately or together, onto a master tape with control track (black). This process requires a master tape with control track.
IP address
Acronym for Iternet Protocol. An address standard for identifying a computer that is connected to the Internet, much the way a telephone number identifies a telephone on a telephone network. Every computer that is connected to the Internet has a unique IP address that is four numbers separated by periods, and each number is less than 256, for example, 192.200.44.69.
IR remote
Acronym for Infrared remote. A remote device that uses a set of coded commands transmitted by infrared light to a receiver that translates and performs various desired functions.
ISP
Acronym for Internet Service Provider. A company which allows you access to the Internet (Your school district may already have service for you). To have access to the internet, you will need to subscribe for service through an Internet Service Provider. There is a monthly fee for this service. It is just like signing up for cable TV. The ISP is the same as a cable company with whom you would sign-up. America Online (AOL) is an example of an internet service provider.
Jog wheel
A circular dial or knob that, when turn one direction or the other, will move the video tape slowly one direction or the other. The Beta is usually in the pause mode when this function is requested.
JPEG (pronounced "jay-peg")
Arconym for Joint Photographic Experts Group. It is a standardized image compression mechanism. The name comes from the committee that wrote the standard.
LAN
Acronym for Local Area Network. A computer network that spans a relative small area. Most LANs are confined to a single building or group of buildings and mainly connect workstations and personal computers.
Lavaliere microphone
This is a small microphone, about one inch tall, that can be clipped onto a piece of clothing about four inches below the speaker's mouth. A thin cord attaches the microphone to a battery pack that the speaker can put in their pocket or clip onto their clothing. Because it is not directly attached to the camera it is called a "wireless" microphone. This is good to use to capture the sound of the speaker. It is generally used when the speaker is moving around, versus sitting still or standing at a podium.
Letterbox
Provides horizontal bands at the top and bottom, in essence, to create a wide screen picture in a traditional television set.
Lighting
Good lighting will make for a better looking video. Most videographers use on-camera lights or lights on light stands, although most high-end cameras require no extra lighting. Keep in mind: some photographers use a "infrared autofocus", and that red light will show up on the video, so be sure to ask your photographer if they have infrared autofocus.
Line in or out
Connectors that bypass the 75 ohm RF out or in circuits of a Beta. Generally indicates that the audio or video signals available at these connectors are of a more direct path to and from their related circuits.
Linear Editing
Traditional video editing as done on a tape-to-tape system, resulting in the client receiving a third generation tape.
Linear elapse time displa
Shows amount of time position on a tape in hours, minutes and seconds.
Linear skating
Sony designation for the SL-HF750 loading tray movement that slides in and out of the front of the machine during tape insertion, loading and unloading.
Lines of resolution
This is a basically a measurement of how sharp your picture will be. The higher the resolution, the higher quality the picture will be. VHS - 230 lines; Beta 260; SuperBeta 320; Super VHS/Hi-8 - 400 lines; ED Beta over 500; Digital - 530 lines.
Links
Links are a function on your computer, and mostly on the internet, that allow you to go from one place to another instantly by simply clicking on a line of text. A link will usually be highlighted in a different color than the rest of the text to signify that it is a link. An icon may also be a link, as may be a picture. However, the designer will usually make it obvious where the links are. When you click on them, they will take you to where they signify on the face of the link.
Logging in / Logging on
Getting permission from a computer to use its services A login/logon procedure involves typing in a user name (also known as user ID) and a password. This procedure makes sure that only authorized people can use the computer or selected programs and sites.
Long life head design
Enhanced video head life through a process of manufacturing the core material that touches the video tape (and also wears away) from a harder composite.
Low angle
In this shot the camera looks up at the subject, making it seem important, powerful, or perhaps larger than it is to the viewer. For example, you might be sitting on the ground looking up at someone who is standing.
LPCM
Arconym for Linear Pulse Code Modulation. This technology is used to store digitized audio signals.
Lubricant, general
A special liquid. gel or paste thats create a small barrier between two surfaces while one travels over the other. In the case of video mechanisms it coats various sliding, rotating or touching areas to reduce friction, heat and wear.
Lubricant, tape
A special compound with properties that allow it to create a small barrier between two surfaces. In the case of video tape it lubricates the tape surface and allows it to travel over the various components it comes in contact with while reducing friction, heat and wear.
M-loading
Designation for the path the tape travels when loaded in the VHS VCR. Total angle for the tape path after all the various turns are calculated for the M-loading system is 540 degrees. (see U-loading)
Magnificent, majestic
Explicative used by Beta supportors to describe the operation of their format.
Master
The original version of your raw footage tape. An original edited tape is called an edited master.
Medium shot
This shot shows less of a scene that the wide shot. The camera seems closer to the subject (although it may not be if you use your zoom lens). For example, if you were interviewing someone, this shot would show them from about the waist up in a medium shot. Use this when you want a closer look at your subject, or when you need to transition between wide shots and close up shots (it is difficult for the viewer to follow what you are doing if you go straight from a wide shot to a close up shot).
Menu
A menu is another point of jumping off. It lists all your choices (by category) of where you can go in the computer or the internet and what you can look at. It is just like using a map in a building to choose where you want to go to perform the tasks you desire.
Monaural audio
Single track recording. Audio recorded in this manner do not duplicate the original presentation of sound placement that stere does. (see stereo)
Monitor
A CRT (cathode ray tube) or video display without a tuner (for receiving broadcast TV signals) that accepts video and/or audio signals; basically a TV that only accepts video from a source attached to it. The monitors are hooked up to VCRs.
MPEG
Acronym for Moving Picture Experts Group. A compression technology for digital video and audio signals intended for consumer distribution. MPEG-1 (low quality) was designed to reproduce VCR quality in a digital format.
MTS stereo decoding
Arconym for Multichannel Television Sound, a standard that allows the encoding of 3 channels of audio within a standard NTSC (analog) video signal to a television. A television that is able to receive MTS Stereo allows you to watch television with stereo sound.
Netiquette
Internet etiquette, the guidelines for correct behavior while using the internet.
New
A product that has never been placed into service.
Noise
Any unwanted electronic signal, or an unwanted audible sound (from fans or cooling devices).
NTSC
Acronym for National Television Systems Committee. Is a standard format adopted by the FCC for television broadcasts in the United States, Japan, Canada and Mexico. This is commonly referred to as composite video because of the convergence of luminance and color into a single analog signal. NTSC delivers 525 lines of resolution at 30 frames per second.
OBR
Acronym for One Button Record. Recorders with this function have a single button that when pressed repeatedly will enter 30, 60, 90, 120, etc. intervals of timed recording.
One button record
Recorders with this function have a single button that when pressed repeatedly will enter 30, 60, 90, 120, etc. intervals of timed recording.
OSD
Acronym for On Screen Display. This configuration controls the on screen display, which informs users when a function is in use and the current status.
Out point (outset point)
The place on the tape where you want to finish your edit.
Output
Indicates that the outgoing signal is available at this circuit connector.
Outstanding
Explicative used by Beta supportors to describe their format.
Page
A Web page is comparable to a real page of any printed material, like a page in a book, and can be nearly any size or length. Information such as text, pictures, links, graphics, animations, etc. can all be placed on a page. A page is one screen of an internet site. A site may be made up of many pages.
PAL
Arconym for Phase Alternation Line. It is the standard format for television broadcasts in Australia, most Western European, South American and Asian countries. PAL delivers 625 lines of resolution at 25 frames per second.
Pan
A shot taken moving on a horizontal plane (from left to right, right to left). If you want to show a ball flying across a field, you might use this shot to follow it from one person to another.
Pan and scan
A version that fills the screen of traditional 4:3 television sets with an entire picture, much like watching network movies.
Patch
This refers to a "fix" in a program. In most cases a patch will be a small file that will repair a known issue in a program. To download a patch, you will have to be a registered user.
PCM
Acronym for Pulse-Code Modulation. Recording method similar to compressed digital. In the case of video recording a seperate device, called a processor, converts audio signals into I/O pulses that can be recorded onto video tape using the spinning heads. The long writing area traced by the video heads permits capturing the large amount of information necessary to convert, store and playback the digital signal.
Peak level meter
Indicators used to display the amount of sound being introducted into a device.
Phono plug
Common sleeve and center tongue connector sometimes called an RCA connector. (see RCA connector)
Pinch roller
A pliable roller, usually made of a rubber based material, that is pressed against the capstan to pull the video tape through the Beta VCR.
Power switch
Button or lever that turns a device on and off.
Pre-roll
The amount of time (in frames or seconds) that it takes for the camera to start rolling before you are actually recording or editing. This allows the tape to come up to speed before the edit is made. It varies by editing system - could be from 2 -10 seconds. To examine a pre-roll editing chart click here.
Pro-sumer
A blend of the words professional and consumer - midlevel quality video that isn't quite up to the Professional level, but is a bit better than the Consumer level.
Quality
Explicative used by Beta supportors to describe their format. Synonymous with excellence.
Quick-timer
Recorders with this function have a single button that when pressed repeatedly will enter 30, 60, 90, 120, etc. intervals of timed recording.
Raw footage, or the unedi
This is the tape exactly as recorded the day of your wedding. Some videographers offer this for sale, some do not, and some include raw footage at no additional charge. The original footage is typically recorded in a professional format that cannot be played on a standard home VCR. This is your first-generation video.
RCA cable or connector
A phono plug commonly referred to as a RCA cable or connector is used to connect audio and video devices together so they can send and receive audio and video between each other. The RCA acronym comes from the company that originally came up with the design (now commonly called a phono plug), Radio Corporation of America (RCA). The cables can have numerous colors but generally the white and red are for the audio and the yellow are used for video. There is no difference in the cables, only their colors. See: phone plug.
Receiver
The receiver is the unit of the wireless mic system that is plugged into the camcorder and receives the audio from the transmitter. Make sure that the unit is on and you can see the red light while you are recording.
Reconditioned
Replacing components in a Beta VCR to bring it back to as close to original operating specifications as feasible.
Refurbished
Renewing a Beta VCR to bring it back to as close to new as feasible.
regular Beta
Refers to the regular or standard beta picture that was produced by the Beta VCRs prior to the introduction of SuperBeta. Still proven to be superior to VHS it was not as sharp as the improved video produced by SuperBeta.
Repair
Correction of a problem that is causing a malfunction.
Reprint
A duplication of the original. In the case of literature piece it has been photocopied, reproduced or replaced by a copy that is very close to the original.
Reset button
A switch, that when pressed returns a device, counter or display back to a predetermined condition. Example: returning a counter back to all zeros.
Reverse zoom
This shot moves you farther away from the subject. For example, from a Close Shot to Medium Shot or a Wide Shot. If you have a Close Up shot of a flower, and want to see the entire field that the flower is in, you can reverse zoom.
RF connector
Threaded screw-type connector the coaxial RF connector is an electrical designed to work at radio frequencies in the multi-megahertz range. RF connectors are typically used with coaxial cables and are designed to maintain the shielding that the coaxial design offers.
RGB
Acronym for Red Green and Blue, the three primary colors of light. In electronics it refers to a three-component video signal in which all the colors in a scene or image are conveyed as three primary colors (Red, Green and Blue) on three separate channels. Some times, the Green signal also carries the Sync information as well. Many high resolution video monitors have RGB inputs.
RS-232
An asynchronous serial data interchange standard. RS-232 links between equipment are normally limited to 50 feet (16 meters). Also referred to as RS-232C (most popular revision). The RS is an acronym for Recommended Standard.
RS-422
A more robust serial digital data interchange standard utilizing individual differential signal pairs for data transmission in each direction. Depending on data transmission rates, RS-422 can be used at distances to 4,000 feet (1,275 meters). Also referred to as RS-422A (the most popular revision).
RS-485
A very robust serial data interchange standard. An RS-485 communications channel is a party-line (multi-drop) digital signal and, like RS-422, is balanced. It is very immune to interference, making it more reliable in demanding environments. It is usable at distances of 4,000 feet and beyond.
Rule of thirds
This classic rule suggests that the center of the camera's attention is one-third of the way down from the top of the shot.
S-video
Abbreviation for Super-video, a method of transmitting a video picture over a cable. S-video sends video in two signals, one for color (chrominance) and one for brightness (luminance), rather than in a single signal like Composite Video technology. Since TVs display separate luminance (Y) and chrominance (C) signals, S-video produces superior images on TVs than Composite Video does. The S-video connector looks very similar to a mouse or keyboard connector on a computer.
Shielding
A metal enclosure or gasket for a circuit, or a metal shield surrounding wire conductors (coaxial or triaxial cable) to lessen interference, interaction, or current leakage. The shield is usually grounded.
Shotgun microphone
This long, narrow microphone is designed to pick up sound that is far away. For example, if some people are 30 feet away, and you want to hear what they are saying, point this microphone directly at them. The range of the microphone will vary. You may see this type of microphone used in sports. For example, trying to pick up what the coach is saying to the quarterback on the other side of the field.
Shuttle ring
A circular dial that when turn one direction or the other (usually while in the pause mode) will move a video tape by varying increments one direction or the other.
Site
A Site is a place on the internet where information is stored and displayed for one group, company, person or organization. A Site is a neat package of all one groups work, whether it be one pages or many. It is not unlike a building site, everything contained and accessible in one location.
Slave
A recording VCR that is connected to a controlling main playback unit (master). The slave is controlled from a master.
Slow motion
Method of displaying a picture with the visual contents moving at a very slow pace.
Stand by
The equivalent of a "pause" button. This is often faster than "stop," because the camera does not have to completely restart the movement of the video tape.
Standard Beta
Refers to the standard or regular beta picture that was produced by the Beta VCRs prior to the introduction of SuperBeta. Still proven to be superior to VHS it was not as sharp as the improved video produced by SuperBeta.
Standard Beta picture
This is the the picture quality produced by all Betas VCRs before SuperBeta was introduced.
Stereo
Duplication of the same presence as actually being at the original source of a perfomance, etc. By recording and playing back the right and left sides (channels) of a sound source the location of that source is replicated in the listeners experience.
Still frame
Pause with picture displayed.
Super high band
Improved picture clarity over regular Beta by boosting the luminance or picture information in the BI speed to approx. 6 Mhz. (noted as BIs speed)
Superb
Explicative used by Beta supportors to describe the Beta VCR picture.
SuperBeta
High fidelity video produced by increasing the luminance carrier signal about 800kHz. The result is a picture that is 20% sharper than conventional or regular Beta. For more information click on the "Beta Technical Info" button in the navigator bar on the right.
SuperBeta picture
Midway through the life of Beta the picture quality was improved 20% over the standard Beta picture. This advance was promoted as SuperBeta.
SuperBetahi-fi
SuperBeta picture coupled with unsurpassed stereo hi-fi achieved from Betahi-fi. For more information click on the "Beta Technical Info" button in the navigator bar on the right.
Supply reel
Designation given to the spool inside the cassette that contains the video tape when rewound.
SwingSearch
Sony term for placing a Beta in pause and moving the tape forward and reverse with control buttons as the picture is displayed. Can be single frame, 1/10, 1/5, xI or xII pause speed.
Switcher
An electronic device that allows cameras, recorders, and other signal sources to be selected as the inputs to another piece of equipment. An example would be switching several cameras representing different angles into a video recorder.
Sync
An abbreviation for synchronizing, as in synchronizing pulses. The timing pulses in a video signal which identify lines, fields and frames.
Take-up reel
Designation given to the spool inside the cassette that contains receives video tape when fast forwarded or played.
Tape return
A button that when pressed winds a tape back to a predetermined location.
Tape speeds
The three speeds of Beta recording. BI, BII and BIII. Beta one was the original tape speed used for the first Betas. Traveling at about 4.0 cm/sec. (1.6 ips.) it had the advantage of a producing a video guard band to reduce picture noise and decent audio because of the faster tape speed. BII was half the speed of BI (2.0 cm/sec. or 0.8 ips.) and BIII was slower still at 1.33 cm/sec. (0.5 ips.). All three speeds were faster than their VHS counterparts.
Terrific
Explicative used by Beta supportors to describe their format. Feeling a Beta user experiences when they are using their VCR.
Three head design
Every VCR needs at least two video heads to record a picture. Three heads allows the retracing of video information (scans) to remove jitter and noise for clear special effects like slow motion and freeze frame. (Also see four head design and DA4 heads.)
Tilt
Camera movement in a vertical plane. (up or down) If you want to show a tall building but you can't get it all in your shot, you might start at the bottom of the building and go up to the top.
Time code
This is a number (could be seconds or frames) that helps you determine where scenes are located on a video tape. You will see this when you look through your view finder. You can use this, or the counter, when logging your tape and editing.
Transmission
A set of gears that when acted upon by a lever, pawl or other mechanism create a change in speed or direction of the components being operated.
Transmitter
The transmitter is the unit of the wireless mic system that you carry, attach to yourself, or place close to you while recording. It sends the audio from the mic to the receiver that is plugged into the camcorder. It should have a red light lit on top when it is on.
Trigger
An external stimulus that initiates one or more instrument functions. Trigger stimuli include; a front panel button (TAKE), an external input voltage pulse.
TV/VTR button
A switch on a Beta that toggles between VCR output and tuner output to a television or monitor.
U-loading
Sony's designation for the path the tape travels when loaded in the Beta VCR. Total angle for the tape path after all the various turns are calculated for the U-loading system is 270 degrees. (see M-loading)
U-matic
Sony's designation for the professional tape format used by the broadcasting and production studios. Total angle after all the various turns are calculated for the U-matic tape path is 270 degrees.
Unsurpassed
Explicative used by Beta supportors to describe how they feel about their format.
Used
An item that has been previously put into service.
User name and password
Using a user name and password is like giving a secret password and your secret name to get into the clubhouse.
VCD
Acronym for Video Compact Disk. Generally for video applications utilizing MPEG-1 technology. The video quality is not a detailed as DVDs. Mostly used in Asia.
VCR
Acronym for Video Cassette Recorder. A device that uses a tape completely contained within a (plastic) shell for recording.
Video black
Black signal, picture that is totally black.
View finder
A small eyepiece or screen on the camera that allows you to see the image you're recording. (The camera also acts as a VCR, so you can play back and watch what you have already recorded through the view finder).
Voice over
An off-camera narrator who puts their voice over the video. The purpose of the voice over is to describe what is happening on the video or provide information.
VTR
Acronym for Video Tape Recorder. A device that uses a tape contained on a spool or reel for recording, sometimes called a reel-to-reel recorder.
White balance
If you ever ended up with yellow-tinted video, chances are you forgot to white balance. It's worthwhile to white balance every time you use your camera to get the highest quality video. If your camera doesn't have this feature, it may have an automatic or internal system. What white balancing does is adjust the intensity of the colors being recorded according to the existing light. Make sure you white balance every time the lighting conditions change; if you record video inside and then go outside, your lighting conditions have changed and you need to instruct the camera on how to "see" the colors. How do you white balance? You can aim the camera at a bright white paper - focus on it in the view finder, and press the "White Balance" button. Or you can focus on someone's white T-shirt (make sure it's all white). Or, your camera may have an automatic white balance setting you can use by simply adjusting a switch or pressing a button.
Wide screen
Provides a special "anamorphic video" signal that, when processed by a wide screen television set, fills the entire screen and delivers optimum picture quality
Wide shot
(Also known as Establishing Shot or Long Shot) This shows the whole scene. Frequently you'll see video pieces begin with a wide shot. It's helpful because it sets the stage - the viewer knows where she/he is. These shots are also good if there's a lot of movement. This might show a person from head to toe.
Winder
A specialized device used to rewind (or fast forward) a video tape, thus reducing the wear on the video recorder.
Wireless microphone
The wireless microphone is made up of two parts, the transmitter and the receiver. Both parts are required for the unit to function properly. The system can be used as a mobile sound pickup when recording video sessions with a camcorder. The wireless mic system usually requires a battery(s) in the transmitter and the receiver may use a battery or be powered by house current. Check your batteries often as this is one of the main reasons for missing audio when recording with a wireless microphone.
Wow and flutter (audio)
Variations in the speed of playback of a recorded audio signal that produce pitch changes and sound distortion. Wow is a slower form of flutter. Wow has to do with small speed variations resulting in a wobbling sound. Flutter deals primarily with rapid speed fluctuations. The two together cause noticeable audible errors in the reproduced signal.
Wow and flutter (video)
Distortion in the video caused by a slowing down and speeding up of the video tape as it passes by the video drum. Wow will cause a slow tearing (separation) of the picture and flutter will cause it to roll (flip up or down).
Zoom
This shot brings you closer to the subject. For example, from a Wide Shot to a Medium Shot or Close Shot. If you are looking at the Golden Gate Bridge, and you want to see individual people walking across it, you might zoom in.