Broadcasting System Details

  Technical Specifications

Code Frames Scan Freq Sound Vision In Use
Lines Band Offset Modulation
Terrestrial Transmission Standards
A 25 405 VHF -3.5MHz Pos No
B 25 625 VHF +5.5MHz Neg Yes
C 25 625 VHF +5.5MHz Pos Yes
D 25 625 VHF +6.5MHz Neg Yes
E 25 819 VHF +11MHz Neg No
F 25 819 VHF +5.5MHz Pos No
G 25 625 UHF +5.5MHz Neg Yes
H 25 625 UHF +5.5MHz Neg Yes
I 25 625 UHF +6.0MHz Neg Yes
K 25 625 UHF +6.5MHz Neg Yes
KI 25 625 UHF +6.5MHz Neg Yes
L 25 625 UHF +6.5MHz Pos Yes
M 30 (29.97) 525 VHF/UHF +4.5MHz Neg Yes
N 25 625 VHF/UHF +4.5MHz Neg Yes
Satellite Transmission Standards
Ku-Band Any Any ~11GHz +6.50MHz Neg Yes
C-Band Any Any ~4GHz +6.50MHz Pos Yes

 Additional Features

Stereo Sound

MTS - Used in conjunction with NTSC/525. Consists of two independant carriers each carrying a discrete channel. One channel provides stereo sound by providing left/right channel difference signals relative to transmitted mono audio track. The second carrier carries the Secondary Audio Program (SAP) which is used for a second language or a descriptive commentary for the blind. Uses a technique based on the dbx noise reduction to improve the frequency response of the audio channel.
FM-FM - dual carrier FM coded discrete stereo transmissions, analogue. Can be used for bi-lingual operation under user selection, but no auto-selection is available. Audio characteristics better than standard mono soundtrack.
NICAM - (full name: NICAM 728) Digital two-channel audio transmissions with sub-code selection of bi-lingual operation. Stereo digital signals with specifications approaching those of Compact Disc are possible. NICAM stands for Near Instantaneously Companded Audio Multiplex and uses a 14bit sample at a 32KHz sampling rate which produces a data stream of 728KBits/sec.

Subtitling

CC - (full name: Closed Captioning) Transmitted on line 21 of NTSC/525 transmissions, contains subtitling information only. CC has no support for block graphics or multiple pages but it can support 8-colors and the use of an italic typeface. Frequently found on pre-recorded VHS cassettes and LDs, also used on broadcast. Also found on PAL/625 pre-recorded VHS cassettes in a modified version.
TeleText - An information service of 200-700 "pages" covering a wide range of topics including TV Schedules, News, Financial Market prices, Comment, Reviews, Concert & Theatre information. Subtitles are typically transmitted on page 888 in the UK, on pages 199/299/399 in Belgium and Holland, on page 150 in Germany and on page 777 in Italy. There are a number of variant character sets used, but the encoding is identical and all English alphabet characters plus numbers and most punctuation can be handled by any decoder. Includes support for 8 colors, and limited block graphics, and selective revealing of underlying TV picture. Transmitted on a variable number of lines (specified in header which contains basic information such as time, date and channel), starting on line 12 and continuing for 7-8 lines typically. Found on broadcasts and some LaserDiscs; recording of TeleText signals is marginal on S-VHS, almost impossible on VHS hence the PAL/625 version of CC.

The BBC-designed Teletext system is known in some quarters as World Standard Teletext. There is an enhanced version known as Fastext which defines four links to additional pages that can be followed with one of four colored buttons on the Teletext receivers remote control. The U.S. "CC" is known widely in technical circles as LITO = LIne Twenty-One, where it lives.

TV Broadcast Formats

There are three main broadcast standards and they are not compatible. The American standard is NTSC 3.58 and is used in a lot of countries that have adapted American technology. There is a variable to this standard called NTSC 4.43 but it is almost extinct. For all intents and purposes anytime you see NTSC in the chart below it is the American NTSC 3.58 standard. The numbers after the letters NTSC have to do with the subcarrier frequency and are of little concern here. The remaining two broadcast systems are PAL and SECAM. PAL has some variations and so does SECAM but the main thing to remember here is that these last two are not compatible with the American NTSC broadcast system. Recordings made in PAL will not play in a SECAM or NTSC VCR and SECAM recordings will not play in a PAL or NTSC VCR. NTSC recordings will not play in PAL or SECAM VCR. I only repair, service or offer for purchase Betas that are for the NTSC system. I do not service or repair PAL or SECAM Beta VCRs. Countries using the NTSC system are highlighted below.

 Color and Broadcasting Systems by Country

Country
TV Color Stereo Subtitles
Afghanistan
B/G PAL
Albania
B/G PAL
Algeria
B/G PAL
Angola
I PAL
Antarctica
M NTSC
Antigua & Barbuda
M NTSC
Argentina
N PAL-N
Armenia
D/K SECAM
Aruba
M NTSC
Australia
B/G PAL FM-FM Teletext
Austria
B/G PAL FM-FM Teletext
Azerbaijan
D/K SECAM
Azores (Portugal)
B PAL
Bahamas
M NTSC
Bahrain
B PAL
Bangladesh
B PAL
Barbados
M NTSC
Belarus
D/K SECAM
Belgium
B/G PAL Nicam Teletext
Belgum (Armed forces network)
M NTSC
Belize
M SECAM
Benin
K SECAM
Bermuda
M NTSC
Bolivia
M NTSC
Bosnia/Herzegovina
B/H PAL
Botswana
K-I SECAM-PAL
Brazil
M PAL-M MTS
British Indian Ocean Territory
M M
Brunei Darussalam
B/ PAL
Bulgaria
D SECAM
Burkina Faso
K SECAM
Burundi
K SECAM
Cambodia
B/G-M PAL-SECAM
Camaroon
B/G PAL
Canada
M NTSC MTS CC
Canary Islands
B PAL
Central African Republic
K SECAM
Chad
D SECAM
Chile
M NTSC
China
D PAL
Colombia
M NTSC
Congo
K SECAM
Cook Islands
B PAL
Costa Rica
M NTSC
Cote D'ivoire (Ivory Coast)
K/D SECAM
Croatia
B/H PAL
Cuba
M NTSC
Cyprus
B PAL
Czechsolvakia
D/K SECAM/PAL
Denmark
B PAL Nicam TeleText
Diego Garcia
M NTSC
Djibouti
K SECAM
Dominica
M NTSC
Dominican Republic
M NTSC
East Timor
B PAL
Easter Island
B PAL
Ecuador
M NTSC
Egypt
B SECAM
El Salvador
M NTSC
Equitorial Guinea
B SECAM
Estonia
B/G PAL
Ethiopia
B PAL
Falkland Islands (Las Malvinas)
MI PAL
Faroe Islands (DK)
B PAL
Finland
B/G PAL Nicam TeleText
Fiji
M NTSC
France
E/L SECAM Teletext
France (French Forces TV)
G SECAM
Gabon
K SECAM
Galapagos Islands
M NTSC
Gambia
I PAL
Georgia
D/K SECAM
Germany
B/G PAL FM-FM TeleText
Germany (Armed Forces TV)
M NTSC
Germany (prev East)
B/G SECAM/PAL
Ghana
B/G PAL
Gibraltar
B PAL
Greece
B/G PAL (was SECAM)
Hong Kong
I PAL Nicam
Honduras
M NTSC
Hungary
B/G & D/K PAL (was SECAM)

Nicam (Budapest
only)

Iceland
B PAL
India
B PAL
Indonesia
B PAL
Iraq
Pal
Iran
H SECAM
Ireland
I PAL Nicam TeleText
Isle of Man
PAL
Israel
B/G PAL Nicam TeleText
Italy
B/G PAL FM/FM TeleText
Jamaica
N SECAM
Japan
M NTSC Matrix
Johnstone Island
M NTSC
Jordan
B PAL
Kazakhstan
D/K SECAM
Kenya
B PAL
Korea (North)
D-D/K SECAM-PAL
Korea (South)
M NTSC
Kuwait
B/G PAL
Kyrgyz Republic
D/K SECAM
Laos
B PAL
Latvia
B/G-D/K PAL-SECAM
Lebanon
B/G PAL
Lesotho
K PAL
Liberia
B/H PAL
Libya
B/G PAL
Liechtenstein
B/G PAL
Lithuania
B/G-D/K PAL-SECAM
Luxembourg
B/G PAL NICAM TeleText
Macau
I PAL
Macedonia
B/H PAL
Madeira
B PAL
Madagascar
B SECAM
Malaysia
B PAL
Maldives
B PAL
Mali
K SECAM
Malta
B/G PAL
Marshall Islands
M NTSC
Martinique
K SECAM
Mauritania
B SECAM
Mauritius
B SECAM
Mayotte
K SECAM
Mexico
M NTSC MTS CC
Micronesia
M NTSC
Midway Island
M NTSC
Moldova (Moldavia)
D/K SECAM
Monaco
L/G SECAM/PAL
Mongolia
D SECAM
Morocco
B SECAM
Mozambique
B PAL
Myanmar (Burma)
M NTSC
Namibia
I PAL
Nepal
B PAL
Netherlands
B/G PAL FM-FM TeleText
Netherlands (Armed Forces Network)
M NTSC
Netherlands Antilles
M NTSC
New Caledonia
K SECAM
New Zealand
B/G PAL Nicam TeleText
Nicaragua
M NTSC
Niger
K SECAM
Nigeria
B/G PAL
Norfolk Island
B PAL
North Korea
D/K? SECAM
North Mariana Islands
M NTSC
Norway
B/G PAL Nicam
Oman
B/G PAL
Pakistan
B PAL
Palau
M NTSC
Panama
M NTSC
Papua New Guinea
B/G PAL
Paraguay
N PAL
Peru
M NTSC
Philipines
M NTSC
Poland
D/K PAL Teletext
Polynesia (French)
K SECAM
Portugal
B/G PAL Nicam Teletext
Puerto Rico
M NTSC
Qatar
B PAL
Reunion
K SECAM
Romania
G PAL
Russia
D/K SECAM
St. Kitts & Nevis
M NTSC
St. Lucia
M NTSC
St. Pierre Et Miquelon
K SECAM
St. Vincent
M NTSC
Sao Tome' E Principle
B/G PAL
Samoa
M NTSC
Saudi Arabia
B SECAM
Senegal
K SECAM
Seychelles
I PAL
Sierra Leone
B/G PAL
Singapore
B PAL
Slovakia
B/G PAL
Slovenia
B/H PAL
Somalia
B/G PAL
South Africa
I PAL
South Korea
M NTSC
Spain
B/G PAL Nicam Teletext
Sri Lanka
B/G PAL
Sudan
B PAL
Suriname
M NTSC
Swaziland
B/G PAL
Sweden
B/G PAL Nicam Teletext
Switzerland
B/G PAL FM-FM TeleText
Syria
B-G SECAM-PAL
Tahiti
KI SECAM
Taiwan
M NTSC
Tajikistan
D/K SECAM
Tanzania
B PAL
Thailand
B PAL
Togo
K SECAM
Trinidad & Tobago
M NTSC
Tunisia
B SECAM
Turkey
B PAL - TeleText
Turkmenstan
D/K SECAM
Turks & Caicos Islands
M NTSC
Uganda
B/G PAL
Ukraine
D/K SECAM
United Arab Emirates
B/G PAL
United Kingdom
I PAL Nicam TeleText
United States
M-HD NTSC-ATSC MTS-digital CC-digital
Uruguay
N PAL MTS
Uzbekistan
D/K SECAM
Venezuela
M NTSC
Vietnam
M-D NTSC-SECAM
Virgin Islands
M NTSC
Wallis & Futuna
K SECAM
Yemen
B-M PAL-NTSC
Yugoslavia
B/H PAL
Zambia
B/G PAL
Zimbabwe
B PAL